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abstract - a type of word that stands for an idea or a quality
abstract term - a word that refers to an idea or a concept and is clarified by a concrete term
acronym - a word made up of the first letters of each word in a phrase
active verbs - words that show the subject of a sentence doing the action
active verbs - words that begin short sentences on resumes to describe skills or responsibilities
active voice - writing using active verbs that is more direct and less confusing
adapt - adjust
agenda - the list of items to be included in a meeting
alumni - graduates of a school
analogy - a comparison between the unknown and the known
analogy - a direct comparison of something that is unfamiliar to something that is more familiar
analytic summary - the type of summary that interprets, evaluates, or criticizes the facts of a source
analyze - study
apathy - indifference
appeal - the motivating factor required to get a plan or an idea accepted
assertive - disposed to managing conflict by stating a position positively but firmly, using no hostility
asymmetrically - an innovative way to display the text and logo of letterhead so that they are not balanced
attention line - an optional letter part that is used when the writer does not know the name of the receiver of the letter or when the writer is writing to an organization
audience - the receiver or receivers of a message
authenticity - the authentic response of an individual
authoritarian style of leadership - the style used by group leaders to maintain strict control of everything a group does


barriers - obstacles that can prevent a person from succeeding if he or she lets them
basic technical style - the type of summary that provides enough information for the needs of an audience of specialists, often with recommendations and results
block - a letter format in which all lines begin at the left margin
body - the main part of a definition
body - the message part of a letter
brainstorming - a problem-solving activity that requires all members of a group to contribute their ideas toward making a decision
brevity - involves using as few words as possible
bullets - symbols inserted at the start of each line in a list that makes the list easy to read
business letters - written messages mailed to people who are outside an organization


cascading - an innovative way to display the text and logo of letterhead so that they run down the side or across the bottom of the page
chronological - referring to time
chronological order - time order
chronological resume - an organizational plan for resumes that lists background information in time sequence, starting with the most recent experience first and working backward
circular definition - a definition that confuses an audience by repeating, rather than explaining, a term
clarifying questions - what should be asked during an interview for information
clearinghouse - a central agency for collecting, classifying, and distributing information or assistance
collection letter - correspondence whose aim is to get customers to pay their outstanding balances; an example of written persuasion
commands - how steps are given in instructions
commands - how steps are given in instructions
common knowledge - widely known facts that are available from many sources
common terms - words that are nontechnical and less confusing; used for a general audience
communication - the transfer or exchange of thoughts, information, ideas, and feelings by speech, writing, or signals between at least two people
comparative - refers to an adjective or adverb used in comparing two items or events
comparative degree - used to compare two items, one of which is superior or inferior to the other in some way
comparison - shows how things are alike
complimentary close - a word or phrase used to end a letter
concise - describing language that is economical in that every word counts
concrete - a type of word that stands for something that can be seen felt, weighed, or measured
concrete term - a word that ensures an audience will understand a word picture; ensures that a mechanism description is precise; clarifies an abstract term
contrast - shows how things are different
co-payment - the amount of money a member of a health plan must pay out of pocket
copy notation - the part of a memo that indicates copies have been made
copy notation - an optional letter part that lets the reader know another person (or other people) received a copy of the letter
cosigner - a person who signs a loan agreement along with the borrower and assumes equal responsibility for repaying the loan
courtesy title - Miss, Ms., Mrs., or Mr.
cover letters - correspondence sent with resumes that demonstrate one’s qualifications for and interest in a particular job
credibility - the confidence that a persuader inspires in an audience
credit rating - a benchmark to assess a person’s ability to pay back loans
criteria - tests that are applied to a term being defined
cross sections - drawings that depict the layers of a mechanism
customer - anyone who depends on or benefits from the work that another person does
customer - a person who receives and/or uses the work of other people
cutaway drawings - drawings that slice a mechanism to show internal parts that are normally concealed from the exterior


data - organized information that usually is used to solve a problem
date - the part of a letter that shows when it was written
deductible - the amount an insured person must pay before insurance payments for covered services begin
defaulted - failed to pay a financial debt
demographic data - a collection of facts about age, income, educational level, and other subjects for a group of people
dependents - people who rely on others for support
details - part of a sentence definition; information about a term to show how it is different from other members of the same group
direct quotes - the exact words of a writer or speaker
dissonance - a feeling of discomfort
doublespeak - deceptive language that hides or misrepresents the truth
ductility - having great strength


editorializing - trying to do more than simply inform by adding words and phrases that attempt to make a certain point or influence an audience
e-mail - communication technology that allows people to send memos from their computers directly to other computers
enclosure - anything in an envelope besides the letter
euphemisms - pleasant-sounding words that substitute for unpleasant or awkward subjects
expanded definition - a definition that gives all of the information that the audience wants or needs about a term
explanatory summary - the type of summary that contains only information, with no analysis or opinion
exploded drawings - drawings that show how the parts of a mechanism fit together; the pieces are shown exploded or separated from each other in succession
exterior perspective - photographs, maps, and realistic drawings used to show an overall picture of a mechanism
external customers - customers outside an organization


facilitative team leader - a person who provides coaching and encouragement to a team, letting the team do the primary decision making
fact - an actual occurrence that is supported by evidence and therefore can be proved
feedback - an evaluative response that is a behavior of good and poor listeners
field research - studies conducted in the world outside a particular department or business headquarters
flowcharts - diagrams that show steps in a process connected by arrows
focal point - a headline, a graphic, or another design element of a persuasive message that draws the attention of the reader
follow-up letter - correspondence that lets an employer know one’s interest in a job and that thanks the interviewer
font - one size and style of a particular typeface
fringe benefit - a benefit given to an employee in addition to his or her salary
function - what is explained when an audience needs to concentrate more on the purpose for each part of a mechanism
functional resume - an organizational plan for resumes that lists work experience and abilities by skill areas


general audience - one type of audience that may have little understanding of the technical details of a message
goals - general statements of future achievements that are specific expressions of a person’s values
goodwill - a favorable relationship between a business and its customers
group - part of a sentence definition; a familiar classification in which a term belongs
guide word - TO, FROM, DATE, or SUBJECT


heading - the part of a letter that gives the mailing address of the writer
headings - an aspect of page design that helps the reader by alerting him or her to the main topic
hidden agenda - a concealed reason for persuasion that may end in disaster
highlighting - the same procedure as underlining that is used to prepare a summary
homophones - words that sound alike but are spelled differently


idioms - phrases or sentences that cannot be understood literally
inference - a prediction or a guess based on fact
inferred meaning - the message that a careful reader sorts out despite the emotional overtones
informative summary - the type of summary that condenses the author’s main ideas with no explanation or detail
inside address - the part of a letter that gives the full mailing address of the reader
interior views - cross sections, schematics, and cutaway and exploded drawings used to show where each part of a mechanism is located with respect to the other parts and to the mechanism as a whole
internal customers - customers within an organization
introduction - the part of an expanded definition that includes an accurate and complete three-part sentence definition


job objective - a brief statement on a resume of one’s employment goal
journal - an organization’s publication that provides brief evaluations of recent developments and government actions


keywords - nouns and noun phrases used instead of active verbs for resumes sent electronically or scanned


labor unions - groups of workers who act collectively to address common issues
laissez-faire leadership - the style used by group leaders who do not take part in or direct group decisions
leadership style - the manner in which leaders lead
letterhead - stationery used for business letters
loaded language - words or phrases that have strong emotional overtones, which can produce positive or negative reactions
loaded language - words or phrases that carry strong emotional appeal, either positive or negative
lobbyists - people who work to influence legislators on behalf of professional organizations
locational instructions - instructions that explain how to get from one place to another
locations - sites that are considered mechanisms when they include separate parts that work together for one purpose
logo - a visual symbol designed to represent a company or an organization
logo - a symbol or trademark that visually represents a company
long-term goals - major targets, or ambitions, of life that take a long time to reach


machine at rest - a mechanism described by structure; a machine that is not in operation
machine in operation - a mechanism described by function; the way a machine performs
map - a type of schematic with directions labeled by arrows and with significant locations marked
mapping - a way to mark personal reactions to an article; webbing
marginal notes - words and symbols written in the text or in the margins
mean - the average of a large group of numbers
mechanism - an object or a system that may be simple or complex
median - the midpoint of a large group of numbers
memorandums - messages written to people within an organization that usually do not go through the United States Postal Service
memos - another word for memorandums
mentor - a person who shares his or her expertise, insights, ideas, and experiences
micrometer - an instrument for making precise measurements
midterm goals - activities or projects that a person must accomplish to attain a long-term goal
mixed punctuation - the style that uses a colon after the salutation and a comma after the complimentary close
mode - the most common number in a large group of numbers
modified block - a letter format in which the heading, date, complimentary close, and signature block begin near the center of the page
multivoting - a decision-making strategy that allows a team to reduce a long list of ideas to a manageable number


network - a way of connecting with information, jobs, and other individuals in a particular field
nominal group technique - a decision-making strategy that helps a team generate options to consider in making decisions
note taking - a way to choose and arrange main points of an article when marking the article isn’t an option
notes - informal personal messages


objective - the why of a goal
objective words - words that give details but do not analyze or judge
open punctuation - the style that uses no punctuation after the salutation and the complimentary close
opinion - a personal belief that may or may not be based on fact
order of importance - a way to describe the parts of a mechanism by which part is most significant, second most significant, etc.
organisms - living mechanisms
organizational pattern - chronological (time) order, order of importance, or spatial order


parallel - describes sentence elements that are expressed the same way
paraphrase - a rewriting of the author’s words into one’s own words
paraphrases - restatements of meeting members’ comments used to promote clarity and keep the meeting moving
parliamentary procedure - the rules for conducting a meeting
passive verbs - words that show the subject of a sentence receiving the action
performance ratings - judgments, not real numerical quantities, as to where a person ranks on a particular scale
perspective - a specific angle or position labeled in a cutaway drawing
persuasion - the conscious effort to influence attitudes and behavior
physical withdrawal - withdrawal from conflict that involves literally moving away from it
plagiarism - the act of using someone else’s words or ideas as one’s own
planning - the first of the three main stages of the writing process
planning, thinking, researching - the components of a formula used to develop logic and that give supportive reasoning for every “why” question that an audience is likely to ask to make a sound decision
points of comparison - ways to analyze the subjects in comparison and contrast
precise - describing language that is exact and accurate
precise - exact; describes wording of a description
preconceived notions - stereotypes that can affect one’s opinion of a person or one’s behavior toward a person while conducting an interview for information
presentation software - software that simulates slide shows on a computer screen
priorities - preferences in a person’s life that he or she can set by developing realistic goals
problem/solution conflict - conflict that occurs when an audience agrees with the problem but not with the suggested solution
process - a series of actions leading to a specific result
procrastination - the act of putting off or delaying an action or a task
proofreading marks - symbols or codes that indicate what kind of changes need to be made to writing
pseudo conflict - false conflict
psychological withdrawal - withdrawal from conflict that involves mentally moving away from it


random order - an ineffective way to describe the parts of a mechanism because it lacks a definite pattern
random sample - a sample in which chance determines who will be included
rank ordering - a process in decision making that allows a team to list solutions and ideas in order by priority
receiver - of a message, one person or thousands of people
reference initials - an optional letter part that includes the initials of the person who keyed the letter
representative sample - a sample that includes a cross section of a group
resume - a sales brochure in which the product is the job hunter
reverse chronological order - a way to organize one’s experience on a resume by listing the most recent job first
revising - the third of the three main stages of the writing process


salutation - the greeting of a letter
scanned - refers to resumes that are read by computers
schematics - drawings or diagrams that show an overall view of a mechanism with connections and various components labeled
selling - making a product, service, or place appealing enough that a customer is willing to spend money on it
seminars - meetings of specialists who have different skills but a specific common interest and who come together for training or learning purposes
sender - the person who is speaking or writing
short-term goals - goals that can be reached in one year or less
signature block - the part of a letter that includes the writer’s keyed name below his or her handwritten signature
situation - in communication, what is happening and where it is happening
specialists - one type of audience that has interest, experience, and knowledge in a particular technical field
specific terms - words that may seem more accurate but are frequently needed only by specialists
standard abbreviations - shortened forms of words or phrases that are prescribed or commonly accepted; used when filling out forms
statements - how steps in a process are given to explain what happened or what is done
student organizations - professional organizations for students in training
subject line - the part of a memo that gives exact information about the content and motivates the audience to read on
subject line - an optional letter part that tells the reader at a glance what the letter is about
subjective data - clusters of information obtained about how people feel or think
subjective words - words that describe but also give a person’s interpretation and opinion
subjects - the topics of comparison and contrast
substances - may be considered mechanisms when they have two or more parts that, when examined separately, do not resemble a new composite material
summaries - shortened versions of speeches, writings, and events
superlative - refers to an adjective or adverb used in comparing three or more things
surrender - a way of avoiding conflict and discussion by giving up the present argument, but not necessarily the conflict
synonyms - words that have the same or nearly the same meaning
system - groups of parts that work together to perform a function
systematic sample with a random start - a sampling procedure that uses a random starting point and a constant skip interval to select a sample from a population that is listed in an orderly way or in random order


table - a way to display data visually in order to organize and compare large quantities of data
tables - organized lists of information arranged in columns and rows
target audience - the intended group of a sales letter
target group - a subset of the population who would be most likely to provide useful information about the topic in question
technical jargon - the specialized language of a particular occupation
teleconferences - meetings in which participants conduct their business via a conference telephone call or videoconference to save travel
term - part of a sentence definition; a word that is being defined
third person - more impersonal and slightly more formal than the second person; used when writing for an unknown audience
three-part sentence definition - a carefully constructed sentence used to define most terms
time management - the ability of a person to get done what he or she wants to do when he or she wants to do it
title - the part of an expanded definition that tells the audience what kind of information to expect
tone - verbal attitude; attitude shown through the voice
tone - a writer’s attitude, which ranges from casual to formal and depends on the situation, the message’s purpose, and the relationship between the writer and the reader
tool - a type of mechanism
transcribed - made a written copy of
transferable skills - skills that allow employees to adapt to changes in an organization, changes in technology, and changes in the requirements of their jobs
transitions - the road signs of writing that tell the reader in what direction a writer’s ideas are going
type style - a variation on a typeface
typeface - a particular design for letters and other symbols


values - ideals that a person accepts that are part of establishing goals
values conflict - conflict that occurs when someone’s personal values are attacked
verbatim - word-for-word; how phrases from an interview for information should be recorded
visual - an illustration that can help the audience understand a definition


webbing - a way to mark personal reactions to an article; mapping
writing - the second of the three main stages of the writing process